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Genetics is the scientific study of heredity, genes and variation in animals and plants. The study seeks to identify how parents pass traits to their offspring, as well as the genes molecular structure and function, distribution of genes, behavior of genes in cell context or organism and change and variation in populations.

Genes are molecules within the content of a cell which regulates how offspring inherit traits from their parent organism. For instance, children generally resemble their parents as a result of genes which they inherit from their parents. Therefore, genetics attempts to understand which traits are inherited and how these traits are passed from parent to offspring.

Structure and Functions of Genes

Some of the traits are part of the morphology, structure and form of the organism such as the weight, height and the eye-color of a person. However, some traits like resistance to diseases and blood type are invisible. The manner in which environment interacts with genes to bring out certain traits is quit complicated. For example, the usual design of the stripes of a tiger is inherited while the actual patterns of the stripes on a certain tiger are prejudiced by the factors of the environment which are hard to determine.

Genes are produce from a long molecules referred to as DNA that is copied and passed on from one generation to another. The structure of DNA involves simple units which line up within these long molecules in a certain order. These units carry certain genetic information according to lining order. This information is referred to as genetic code. The genetic machinery reads the genetic codes in triplet codon sets. This information forms the structure and function a living organism.

Variation in Organism Population

The genetic codes within a certain gene is not necessarily to be similar to other genes within organisms of same species and thus various genes in similar species can carry different instructions. Every unique single gene form is referred to as allele. For instance, a single allele of a certain gene for the color of the hair can instruct the organism body to produce black pigment hence result to growth of black hair, while another allele of the same gene can provide distorted information and hence no pigment is produced resulting to growth of white hair.

The random changes in genes, mutation result to formation of new alleles. Therefore, mutation results to development of new traits in living organisms. For example, mutation of allele for black hair pigment to an allele for white hair. Mutation is very significant in evolution of the living organism.